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Welders Home Welding Resources Welding Glossary

Welding Glossary

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Air Carbon Arc Cutting (CAC-A)-A cutting process by which metals are melted by the high temperature of an arc using a carbon electrode. Molten metal is forced away from the cutting by a explosion of forced air. To eliminate large amounts of metal, look for a welder that can use carbons of at least 3/8 in diameter. Consumables: carbon electrodes, compressed air supply.

Alternating Current (AC)-An electrical current that reverses its direction at regular intervals, such as 60 cycles sporadic current (AC), or 60 hertz.

Amperage-The dimension of the amount of electricity flowing past a given point in a performer per second. Current is another name for amperage.

Arc-The physical gap between the ending of the electrode and the bottom metal. The physical gap causes high temperature due to resistance of current flow and arc rays.



BACK PASS-A pass made to put down a back weld.

BACK UP-In flash and disappoint welding, a locator used to pass on all or a section of the upsetting force to the workpieces.

BACK WELD-A weld deposited at the backside of a single groove weld.

BACKHAND WELDING-A welding technique in which the light up is intended for towards the completed weld.

BACKING STRIP-A part of material used to maintain molten metal at the root of the weld and/or increase the thermal capacity of the joint so as to stop excessive warping of the base metal.

BACKING WELD-A weld bead applied to the root of a single groove joint to promise entire root penetration.

BACKSTEP-A series in which weld bead increments are deposited in a path opposite to the direction of progress.

BARE ELECTRODE-An arc welding electrode that has no coating other than that subsidiary to the drawing of the wire.

BARE METAL-ARC WELDING-An arc welding procedure in which fusion is obtained by heating with an undefended arc between a bare or carelessly coated electrode and the work. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode.

BASE METAL-The metal to be welded or cut. In alloys, it is the metal present in the leading proportion.

BEAD WELD-A type of weld collected of one or more string or interlace beads deposited on an unbroken surface.


BEVEL ANGLE-The position formed between the arranged edge of a member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member.

BOND-The connection of the welding metal and the base metal.

BOXING-The process of continuing a fillet weld around a corner of a member as an expansion of the principal weld.

BRIDGING-A welding desert caused by worst penetration. A void at the root of the weld is spanned by weld metal.

BUCKLING-Deformation caused by the heat of a welding process.

BUILDUP SEQUENCE-The order in which the weld beads of a multipass weld are deposited with respect to the cross section of a joint. See BLOCK SEQUENCE.

BUTT JOINT-A joint between two workpieces in such a manner that the weld combination the parts is between the exterior planes of both of the pieces joined.

BUTT WELD-A weld in a butt joint.



Cap pass-Same as cover up pass.

Capacitor-An element in electrical circuits used to store an electrical charge.

Capillary action-The possessions of a liquid to move into little spaces if it has the ability to ãwetä these surfaces.

Carbon-A component which, when joint with iron, forms various kinds of steel.In steel, it is the altering carbon content which changes the physical properties of the steel.Carbon is also used in a solid form as an electrode for arc welding.

Carbon dioxide-A gas used as a shielding gas in welding.CO2 is often used when welding carbon steel with MIG (GMAW).

Constant Current (CC) Welding Machine-These welding machines have partial most short circuit current. They have a negative volt-amp curve and are often referred to as "droopers". The voltage will alter with different arc lengths while only slightly varying the amperage, thus the name constant current or variable voltage.

Constant-Speed Wire Feeder-Wire Feeder operates from 24 VAC or 115 VAC supplied by the welding power source.

Current-Amperage is another name for current. The total amount of electricity flowing past a point in a conductor every second.



Defect-One or more termination will cause the testing failure in a weld.

Direct Current (DC) -The direct current flows in one direction and it wont repeal and the direction of flow have the alternating current.

Direct Current Electrode Negative (DCEN)-The particular direction of current is run througha welding circuit.when electrode lead is connected with the negative terminal and the work lead is connected to the positive terminal of the welding machine.This is also known as direct current, straight polarity (DCSP).

Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP)-The particular direction of current pass through the welding circuit.the electrode lead is connected to the positive terminal and the work lead is connected to the negative terminal to the DC welding machine. It is also known as direct current,reverse polarity (DCRP).

Duty Cycle -The Arc welding machine can be operated at the maximum rated output of 10 minutes.For instance 60% possible in duty cycle at 300 amps.The 300 amps the welding machine can be used for 6 minutes and it should allow to cool with the fan motor running for 4 minutes.



Fan-On-Demand™ - Interior power source cooling that only works when needed,keeping the inside components clean

Fixed Automation - automated,automatically controlled welding for easy and straight or circular welds.

Flexible Automation - Automated, mechanically controlled system is used for complex figures and application wherever welding paths need torch angle manipulation.

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) - An Arc welding process which soften and connecting the metals by heating them with an Arc between a constant,fresh electrode wire and the work.Sheilding is acquaire from a flux enclosed within the electrode core. It depends upon the type of flux-cored wire, additional sheilding may or may not be present from externally complete gas or gas mixture . consumables:contact tips, flux cored wire, shielding gas. If it is necessary everythimg depends upon the wire.



Ground Connection-- A security connection from a welding machine frame to the earth. Frequently used for grounding an engine-driven welding machine where a cable is linked from a earth stud on the welding machine to a metal stake placed in the earth. See Work piece link for the distinction between work connection and earth connection.

Ground Lead -When comparing to the link from the welding machine to the work,chosen term Work piece Lead.



Hertz - Hertz is frequently referred to as cycles per second. In the United States, the frequency or directional change of alternating current is typically 60 hertz.

High Frequency – wrap the whole frequency spectrum above 50,000 Hz. Used in TIG welding for arc explosion and stabilization.

Hot Start™ - Used on several Stick (SMAW) machines to construct it easier to start difficult-to-start electrodes. Used for arc starting only.



Inverter - Power source which add to the frequency of the arriving primary power, thus provided that for a minor size machine and enhanced electrical characteristics for welding, such as faster response time and more organize for pulse welding.



KVA - Kilovolt-amperes. The entire volts times amps divided by 1,000, demanded by a welding power source from the primary power equip by the utility company.

KW - Kilowatts. Primary KW is the real power used by the power source when it is generate its rated output. Secondary KW is the real power output of the welding power source. Kilowatts are established by taking volts times amps divided by 1,000 and taking into account in some power factor.



Lift-Arc™ - This characteristic allows TIG arc preliminary without high frequency. Establish the arc at any amperage without polluting the weld with tungsten.



Microprocessor-One or more integrated circuits that can be planned with accumulate commands to execute a range of functions.

MIG and Gas Metal Arc Welding-

An arc welding method which joins metals by heating them with an arc. The arc is linking a constantly fed filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work piece. Outwardly supplied gas or gas mixtures offer shielding. Ordinary MIG welding is too referred to as short circuit transfer. Metal is deposited merely when the wire actually contact the work. No metal is transferred across the arc. An additional method of MIG welding, spray transfer moves a stream of minute molten droplets across the arc from the electrode to the weld puddle. Consumables: contact tips, shielding gas, welding wire.



Open-Circuit Voltage (OCV)-As the name involve, no current is flowing in the circuit since the circuit is unlock. The voltage is overcome upon the circuit, though, so that when the circuit is finished, the current will flow at once. For example, a welding machine that is turned on except not being used for welding at the second will have an open-circuit voltage useful to the cables attached to the output terminals of the welding machine.



Plasma Arc Cutting - An arc cutting procedure which severs metal by using a fine arc to soften a tiny area of the work. This procedure can cut all metals that perform electricity. Miller Spectrum cutters are total packages that enclose all necessary equipment and torch consumables. Consumables: torch consumables, gas or compressed air supply.

Pounds per Square Inch (psi) - A quantity equal to a mass or weight functional to one square inch of surface area.

Power Efficiency - How well an electrical machine exploit the arriving electrical power.

Power Factor Correction - Normally used on single-phase, regular current power sources, to diminish the amount of primary amperage require from the power company whereas welding.

Primary Power - frequently referred to as the input line voltage and amperage accessible to the welding machine from the shop's major power line. Frequently expressed in watts or kilowatts (KW), primary input power is AC and may be single-phase or three-phase. Welding machines with the ability of accepting more than single primary input voltage and amperage have to be correctly linked for the arriving primary power being used.

Pulsed MIG (MIG-P) - A customized spray shift process that creates no spatter since the wire does not touch the weld puddle. Applications best suitable for pulsed MIG are those at present using the little circuit transmit technique for welding steel, 14 gauge (1.8 mm) and up. Consumables: contact tips, shielding gas, welding wire.

Pulsed TIG (TIG-P) - A customized TIG process suitable for welding thinner materials. Consumables: tungsten electrode, filler material, shielding gas.

Pulsing - Sequencing and calculating the amount of current, the polarity, and the period of the welding arc.



Rated Load - The amperage and voltage the power source is intended to construct for a given exact duty cycle period. For instance, 300 amps, 32 load volts, at 60% duty cycle.

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) - A procedure in which two sections of metal are connected by passing current between electrodes located on opposite sides of the pieces to be welded. There is no arc with this process, and it is the resistance of the metal to the current flow that origin the fusion. Spot welding need the following equipment: air- or water-cooled spot welder set of 2 tongs and set of 2 tips. Consumables are not necessary to spot weld.

RMS - Root Means Square. The effective values of calculated AC voltage or amperage. RMS equals 0.707 times the highest, or peak value.



Semiautomatic Welding - The equipment controls merely the electrode wire feeding. The welding gun progress is forbidden by hand.

Shielding Gas - Protective gas used to stop atmospheric pollution of the weld pool.

Single-Phase Circuit - An electrical circuit make only one irregular cycle within a 360 degree time span.

Spatter - The metal particles carry away from the welding arc. These particles do not turn out to be part of the finished weld.

Spot Welding - frequently made on materials include some type have common characteristics and combined design. Can refer to resistance, MIG or TIG spot welding. Resistance spot welds are complete from electrodes on both sides of the joint, while TIG and MIG spots are complete from one surface only.



TIG Welding (GTAW or Gas Tungsten Arc) - repeatedly called TIG welding (Tungsten Inert Gas), this welding process link metals by heating them by means of a tungsten electrode which should not develop into part of the finished weld. Filler metal is occasionally used and argon inert gas or inert gas mixtures be used for shielding. Consumables: tungsten electrode, filler metal, shielding gas.

Three-Phase Circuit - Electrical circuits distribute three cycles inside a 360 degree time span, and the cycles are 120 electrical degrees apart.

Torch - A device used in the TIG (GTAW) process to manage the place of the electrode, to move current to the arc, and to direct the flow of the shielding gas.

Touch Start - A low-voltage, low-amperage arc initial procedure for TIG (GTAW). The tungsten is handling to the work piece; when the tungsten is raise from the work piece an arc is recognized.

Tungsten - unusual metallic element with very high melting point (3410o Celsius). Used in mechanized TIG electrodes.



Voltage - frequently called TIG welding (Tungsten Inert Gas), this welding process link metals by warmth them with a tungsten electrode which should not turn into part of the finished weld. Filler metal is occasionally used and argon inert gas or inert gas mixtures are used for shielding. Consumables: tungsten electrode, filler metal, shielding gas.

Voltage-Sensing Wire Feeder - unusual metallic element with tremendously high soften point (3410o Celsius). Used in developed TIG electrodes.

Volt-Amp Curve - Graph that shows the output individuality of a welding power source. Shows voltage and amperage qualifications of a particular machine.



Weld Metal - The electrode and base metal that was dissolve while welding was enchanting place. This forms the welding droplet.

Weld Transfer - technique by which metal is shift from the wire to the molten puddle. There are numerous techniques used in MIG; they include: small circuit transfer, spray arc transfer, globular transfer, buried arc transfer, and pulsed arc transfer.

Wire Feed Speed - uttered in in/min or mm/s, and refers to the speed and amount of filler metal fed addicted to a weld. Usually talking the higher the wire feed speed, the higher the amperage.

Work piece Connection - A means to close the work lead (work cable) to the work (metal to be welded on). Also, the tip at which this link is made. Individual kind of work link is made with a flexible clamp.

Work piece Lead - The conductor cable or electrical conductor linking the arc welding machine in addition to the work.






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